Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. ARISTOTLE ON MELANCHOLY. Problemata xxx.i. Through what i is it that all those who have become eminent in philosophy or politics or poetry or the arts turn. The present volume contains a collection of papers on the reception of Aristotle’s Problemata, a multifaceted text asking various questions about medical.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. An examination of these references shows that some of them can be connected with passages in the Problemata, while others cannot ; from which it may be concluded that, while the Problemata is not the genuine Aristotelian work, it nevertheless contains an element derived from such a work.

problemaa It is also obviously indebted to other Aristotelian treatises, especially those on Natural History, to the Hippocratean writings, and to Theophrastus. The repetitions and con tradictions which occur in the work seem to show that it was a gradual compilation by several hands ; and, if one probkemata judge from the late forms of words which occur in several passages, it did not reach its final form until some time after the beginning of the Christian Era.

Some critics would date its completion as late as the fifth or sixth century A. The doctrine throughout is Peripatetic, and the aristtle of subjects treated shows the wide interests of that school. The preface to that edition contains a complete account of the MSS. Richards in his Aristotelica London, Grant Richards, This only came into my hands after I had completed the first draft of my translation ; it confirmed in several passages conclusions at which I had arrived independently.

Ross has been good enough to read the translation both in MS. I have also to thank Sir Henry Hadow, D. The Drinking of Wine and Drunkenness.

The Positions assumed in Lying down and in other Postures. Bruises, Scars, and Weals. Summary of Physical Problems.

Problems, Volume I

Things of Pleasant Odour. Things of Unpleasant Odour. The Effect of Locality on Temperament. Salt Water and the Sea. The Winds Fear and Courage. Temperance and Intemperance, Continence and Incontinence. Prudence, Intelligence, and Wisdom.

The Mouth and its parts. The Effects of Touch. The Coloration of the Flesh. And this is the 5 treatment used by some doctors; for they cure by arisrotle excessive use of wine or water or salt, or by over-feeding or starving the patient.

Is it because the causes of the disease are opposites of one another, so that each reduces the other to the mean? Is it because the seasons are hot and cold and moist and dry, while diseases are due to excess of these qualities and health to their equality? In that case, if the disease is due to moisture or cold, a season which has the opposite characteristics stops it ; but if a season of the opposite kind 1 follows, the same admixture of qualities being caused as before intensifies the disease and kills the patient.

For this reason the seasons even cause disease in 15 healthy persons, because by their changes they destroy the proper admixture of qualities ; for it is at the same time improved by suitable seasons, times of life, and locali ties. The health therefore requires careful management at times of change.

And what has been said generally as to the effect of the seasons applies also in detail ; for changes of winds and of age and of locality are to some extent 20 changes of season. These also therefore intensify and stop diseases and bring them to a crisis and engender them, as 1 i, e. Is it in order that there may be no disturbance when the excretions 3 are being altered by such changes?

Is prkblemata in both cases the effect of wasting? For those who are starving waste because they do not receive any nourishment at all, while the bilious waste because they do not derive any benefit from the nourishment which they take.

Is ariztotle because, being accompanied by fever, they are acute because they are violent, and violence is unnatural? For fervent inflammation is set up when poblemata parts of the body ] are moist, and problemataa, being due to an excess of heat, engenders fevers. In the summer, therefore, diseases are dry and hot, but in the winter they are moist and conse quently acute for they soon kill the patientfor concoction will not take place because of the abundance of the excre tion.

Is it because it is the only disease to which all men alike are liable, and so the plague affects any one who is already in a low state of health?


Thompson s note on H. The result is that, first, ophthalmia occurs when the excretion in the region of the head liquefies, and, secondly, fever ensues.

For it is noticeable that anything which admits of extreme 86o J cold also admits of extreme heat, water, for example, and a stone, of which the former boils quicker than other things, the latter burns more.

Generally speaking the change which occurs when a warm, 5 dry summer follows immediately on a wet spring, being violent has a deleterious effect upon the body. The effect is still worse if the summer is rainy ; for then the sun finds material, which it will cause to boil in the body as in the earth and air ; the result is fever and ophthalmia.

When the body is in this state, the spring being cool congeals and hardens it owing to its dry ness. The result is that women who are pregnant run a risk of abortion in the spring because of 1 This problem is clearly derived from Hippocr. This is clearly the reading which T. In the case of other persons because in the 25 spring the phlegm is not purged away owing to its excess as happens when the weather is warmbut congeals owing to the cold when the summer and warmth succeeds, setting up violent liquefaction, humours form in those who are bilious and dry because their bodies lack moisture and are naturally parched ; but these humours are slight and so 30 such people suffer from dry ophthalmia.

Those on the other hand who are phlegmatic are afflicted with sore throats and catarrh of the lungs. Women suffer from dysentery owing to their natural moisture and cold ; while elderly persons are afflicted with apoplexy, when moisture being all set free at once overcomes them and solidifies owing to the weakness of their natural heat.

Project MUSE – Aristotle’s Problemata in Different Times and Tongues

But why is it that if the summer and autumn are dry and n northerly winds prevail, this weather suits those who are 10 phlegmatic, and women? Is it because water becomes nutriment, with the result that it gets into one s system and has an effect upon one, which is not the case with air? Further there are many kinds of water differing 7 intrinsically from one another, but not of air ; this then 30 may also be a reason. For even when we change our place of dwelling we continue to breathe practically the same 8 arustotle, but we drink different waters.

It is, therefore, 1 i. Why is it that a change of drinking-water is more 14 35 unhealthy than a change of food?

Is it because we con sume more pgoblemata than anything else? For water is found in farinaceous and other foods and whatever we drink consists mainly of water. For extremities, such as beginnings and ends, are particularly liable to disturbance.

So too foods, when they 5 are different, corrupt one another ; 2 for some have only just entered the system, while others have not yet done so. Further, just as a varied diet is unhealthy for the concoc tion 3 is then disturbed and not uniformso those who change their drinking-water are using a varied diet in what they drink ; and liquid nourishment has more effect than wristotle food because it is greater in bulk and because the moisture from the foods themselves forms nourishment.

It is a mechanical truth that the extremities of anything material e. Thompson s note, and Pliny, N. Is it because two things are fatal to life, excess 2 and cold?

For life is heat, whereas problemaga season has both the above characteristics, for it ptoblemata cold, and winter is then at its height, the subsequent season being spring. Or is it because those 25 who suffer from chronic diseases are in a similar con dition to the old?

Thus the upper parts of the body are cleared out ” because the impurities are carried to problemtaa lower parts, and these become full of excretions which easily putrefy. If on the other hand this does not happen, 1 children, because they are moist and hot, are in a state of excessive boiling, because they are agistotle cooled ; and anything which does not as it 10 were 2 boil out in the summer, does so in the autumn.

If the excretions do not cause death immediately, but settle round the lungs and windpipe for they collect first in arustotle upper part of the body, because we are warmed by the air, for it is owing to this that ophthalmia occurs before fever in an unhealthy summer if then, as I have said, the 15 excretions in the upper parts of the body do not imme aristktle kill the patient, they descend? If the dysentery ceases, quartan afistotle arise in those patients who survive ; for the sediment of the unconcocted moisture remains very persistently in the body 20 and becomes active, just like black bile.


Why is it that, if the summer and the autumn have 20 been rainy and damp, the ensuing winter is unhealthy? Those then whose 3 flesh is solid do not allow of much excretion. When there fore the excretion in the upper parts of the body cools as happens in drunken persons when they grow coldthe above-mentioned diseases aistotle engendered. On the other 1 i. Is it 5 because it is necessarily a sign ariztotle the year is damp and rainy and the ground is necessarily damp?

The conditions of life will then resemble those under which people live in a marshy district, and these are unhealthy. The body must then have in it an abundance of excretion and so contain unhealthy matter in the summer. Is it because everything flourishes in its natural probblemata, and these frogs probelmata naturally moist and so signify that the year is moist and damp? Now such years are unhealthy ; for then T5 the body being moist contains abundant excretion, which is a cause of diseases.

When therefore south winds blow problemara bringing rain, they engender problemaat condition 4 aristootle us, whereas, when they bring rain with them, the rain probemata Kavaos is the remittent bilious fever which is epidemic in the Levant ; cp. The source is Theoph. Now south winds from the sea are also beneficial to plants, for they are cooled by the sea before they reach 25 them ; whereas blight is due to alien moisture and heat.

Why is it that men feel heavier and weaker when the 24 wind is in the south? Further, our strength is in our joints, and they are relaxed by south winds as is shown by the fact that things which have been glued together creak ; for the viscous matter in the joints, if it hardens, prevents us from moving, whereas, if it is too moist, it prevents us from exerting ourselves.

Why are people more liable to fall ill in the summer, 25 35 while those who are ill are more liable to die in the winter?

In the arustotle on the other hand, because the whole body is in a state of rarity and cool and too much relaxed for great exertion, there must necessarily be many commencements of disease owing to fatigue and to the fact that we do not concoct all that we 5 swallow for summer is the season of fresh fruit ; but such diseases are not so violent, and therefore yield easily to treatment.

Why is it that deaths are particularly likely to occur 26 during the hundred days following each solstice? Is it because in each case the excess of heat or cold extends 10 over this period, and excess causes disease 4 and death in the weakly?

Is it because changes are unhealthy? For in winter we are in a better condition for concoction and at the very height of our health, 3 so that naturally illnesses which arise from more serious causes are them- 20 selves more serious and more likely to prove fatal. We see the same thing in problfmata and generally amongst those who are in a healthy condition ; for they either are not afflicted with disease, or, if they are, they rapidly succumb, for they only become ill from some serious cause.


Is it due to the fact that of the humours in man the bile is hot and the phlegm cold? As a result, in summer the cold matter is set free, and being diffused in the body gives rise to chill and shivering ; in the winter, on the other hand, the 3 hot matter is overpowered by the weather and cooled.

Burning fevers are more troublesome in the winter and autumn, because, owing to the prbolemata, the hot matter collects within, and the fever is within and not on the surface ; it is natural therefore that burning fevers should probleemata during this part of the year. This can be well illustrated problemxta con- 35 trasting those who bathe in cold water and those who use warm water in the winter ; those who w r ash in cold water, though they feel chilled for a short time whilst they are 1 Cp.

For the flesh of those who wash in cold water becomes solid, and the hot matter collects within ; but the flesh of those who use warm water becomes 5 rare, and the hot matter is diverted to the outside of the body. Would it, 30 owing to its dissolvent action, set up perspiration and evaporation?

How can the presence of an pfoblemata be diagnosed?

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